New skin cancer treatment from Israel

from: en.wikipedia.org
Skin cancer is one of
the most common malignant diseases. Treatment of skin cancer at Herzliya
Medical Center in Israel involves removal of the local tumor and therapy aimed
at the destruction of metastases and prevent recurrence, using proven
progressive methods of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as well as biological and
photodynamic therapy. Like most other cancers, successful melanoma treatment,
for example is largely dependent on early detection.
  
Types
of Skin Cancer
Skin cancer is
characterized by atypical changes in normal cells of the epidermis – the upper
layer of the skin – and abnormal growth. There are several types of skin
cancer:

  • Squamous cell carcinoma – a Tumor
    formed by flat epithelial cells.
  • Basal cell carcinoma – neoplasm
    develops from basal cells, located within a deep layer of the epidermis
  • Melanoma – the source of the
    tumors are the melanocytes, which are cells that contain the natural
    pigment melanin
Rarer forms of skin
cancer include Kaposi’s sarcoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and cancer of the
sebaceous glands. Skin cancer treatment in Israel is planned accordingly, based
on the histologic tumor type and stage of the disease.
Skin
cancer Risk Factors
The main risk factor
for skin cancer is ultraviolet light (UV) radiation from the sun, which causes
mutations in the DNA of the epidermal cells.
Cancer risk is also
higher among those whose professional activity requires large amounts of time
spent outdoors, such as athletes, lifeguards, and construction workers. Also
people with fair skin and those who sunburn easily, as well as people with lots
of moles and use tanning beds. Other risk factors include:
  • Living and vacationing in
    mountainous areas or areas with a large number of sunny days a year
  • Family history of skin cancer
  • Contact with ionizing radiation or
    chemical carcinogens
  • Previous diagnosis of skin cancer
  • Immunodeficiency
  • Continual sunburn
  • A history of precancerous lesions
    such as actinic keratosis
Types
and Signs of Skin Cancer

from: hmcisrael.com
  • Basal cell carcinoma – often localized in open areas
    like the face, neck and scalp. Basal cell carcinoma may appear as a smooth
    grayish-pink nodule on the skin surface or as a flat pink ulcer
  • Squamous cell carcinoma – often localized to ears and
    hands. People with darker skin experience squamous cell carcinoma on
    closed areas of the body. Tumors appear in the form of a dense red nodule
    or as flat ulcers, as well as crusted or scaly skin
  • Melanoma – the tumor can be formed based
    on existing nevi (atypical moles) subjected to malignancy (malignant
    transformation), or from melanocytes located anywhere on the skin. For
    men, melanoma is often localized on the face and torso. Women, usually on
    the lower extremities. People with darker skin can develop melanoma on
    palms, fingertips, or under nails. Melanoma can also occur on mucous
    membranes of the body, such as the vagina, rectum, mouth or nasal cavity.
    Furthermore its appearance may look as follows:
  1. Brown spots, uneven in color
    (darker elements)
  2. Transformation of existing nevus
    (moles) that change their appearance in color or size.
  3. Appearance of neoplasm – irregular
    borders and atypical color (white, red, cyanotic, or blue-black)
  • Kaposi’s sarcoma – this type of skin cancer often
    occurs in people with weakened immune systems such as those living with
    HIV. The tumor is formed from blood vessels and appears in the form of a
    purple and red spot
  • Merkel cell sarcoma – a rare malignant disease, which
    manifest as small nodules, found on the face, neck or torso
  • Cancer of the sebaceous glands – an
    aggressive malignant tumor, which appears on the face, especially in the
    eye regions
Skin
Cancer Diagnosis at HMC
Preliminary diagnosis
is made by examination of the skin. If during the exam, certain suspicious
lesions are found, a biopsy is performed in order to investigate tissue samples
for the presence of abnormal cells, as well as to identify the histologic type
of the tumor.
Skin cancer treatment
in Israel is dependent on the stage of the disease by the tumor size, degree of
infiltration into the surrounding tissue and the presence of metastases in
distant organs. Basal cell carcinoma rarely spreads beyond the epidermis, and a
biopsy of the tumor is usually sufficient for the diagnosis of her stage. To
determine the stage of melanoma or squamous cell cancer, a series of diagnostic
tests are performed, including CT scan, bone scintigraphy, among others. 
Skin
Cancer Treatment in Israel
1. Surgery
Most skin cancers are
treated by surgery. Excision (removal) of the tumor through a biopsy or as a
separate procedure. The surgeon removes the tumor and its surrounding field of
soft tissue. With involvement of the lymph nodes, the resection is performed.
2. Cryosurgery
As an alternative to
surgery for small superficial lesions, degradation of these are performed with
liquid nitrogen at early stages.
3. Mohs surgery
Large or recurrent
tumors are excised by this method, precise micrographic precise surgery that
removes tissue layer by layer and examined microscopically (in real-time) until
no skin cancer cells are visible. The method of Mohs surgery involves dramatic
removal of a cancerous tumor, while retaining the maximum amount of adjacent
healthy tissue.
4. Curettage and
electrosurgery
Curettage, is
performed after excision of basal cell carcinoma or Squamous cell carcinoma,
for which the surgeon utilizes a mechanical scraping (curettage) surface on the
surgical wound, and may cauterize it (using electrosurgery), or use
cryotherapy. Thus, it is possible to destroy residual tumor cells, located in
deeper layers of the skin.
5. Skin cancer
radiotherapy
If radical removal of
the tumor is difficult, the patient may be prescribed radiotherapy. Radiation
dosage and number of treatments administered is determined on an individual
basis.
6. Chemotherapy of
malignant skin tumors
Systemic chemotherapy
is administered in cases of metastasis. Local chemotherapy is applied using
cytotoxic drugs directly to the tumor site.
7. Photodynamic
therapy of cancer tumors of the skin
This technique
consists of exposing the tumor to a laser beam to stimulate photosensitivity –
an artificial increase in susceptibility to light.
8. Biological therapy
of skin cancer
Biological therapy is
aimed at stimulating the immune system to target and destroy cancer cells.
 The incidence
of skin cancer remains high, public awareness and prevention could
significantly lower the incidence rate. Experts at Herzliya Medical Center in
Israel possess the most advanced methods of diagnosis and skin cancer treatment
in Israel. The use of ultra-modern equipment and effective medications, HMC in
Israel allows patients to achieve radical destruction of malignant tumors and
prevent recurrence of the disease in the future.[1]
Culled from, HERZLIYA MEDIAL CENTRE.


[1] Herzliya Medial Centre, SKIN
CANCER TREATMENT IN ISRAEL
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